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Dating industry Yuma

The Yuma Project provides water to irrigate 68, acres in the vicinity of the towns of Yuma, Somerton, and Gden in Arizona, and Bard and Winterhaven in California. The project is divided into the Reservation Division, which consists of 14, acres in California, and the Valley Division, which consists of 53, acres in Arizona.

Dating Industry Yuma

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Palms are of the class Monocotyledonae order Arecales and family Aricaceae. Among the genus Phoenixthere are 13 species of palms, which are native from the Canary Islands east across northern and central Africa, the extreme southeast of Europe Creteand southern Asia from Turkey east to southern China and Malaysia Zaid, Unlike most other fruit-bearing crops, dates are monocots, and they are dioecious.

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Dates have been an integral part of human history for thousands of years. It is difficult to determine the exact origin of date palm domestication because there is no wild ancestor Terral et al. Domestication, in the oasis agroecosystem, likely occurred in Mesopotamia and perhaps also in North Africa Danthine, ; Popenoe,; Tengberg, Recent research suggests that date domestication originated from two major subpopulations: one centered around the Arabian Persian Gulf and Djibouti and the other in North Africa Mathew et al.

There are examples of year-old glass perfume bottles blown in the form of a date Phoenix Antiquities Art,Roman mosaics show date palms, Brooklyn Museum,and date palms appeared on the painted walls of Egyptian tombs and on Assyrian reliefs, perhaps as a symbol of fertility Collins, Greek and Phoenician traders brought date palms to Spain Rivera et al.

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Industry explorers and colonizers subsequently carried the palm to North and South America, including Chile and Peru and to areas that today fall in the Mexican states of Sonora, Sinaloa, and Baja California Rivera et al. The tree produced well in these locations and exporters sent date fruit from Baja California, in the beginning of Morton, The Spaniards introduced dates to California and Arizona in the 17th and 18th centuries.

The Franciscans established additional missions in California, where, inthe first date palm planting was made in San Diego Butterfield, ; Trent and Seymour, Date plantings were not limited to California and Arizona. Louis Church in New Orleans beginning in the late s. The palm may have been planted between and Old New Orleans, In the late s, J. Wolfskill planted date seedlings at his farm, Yuma Winters, CA these palms still existand they were planted again in in the San Francisco Bay area Nelson, Lack of summer heat units in all these areas led to an inability of the fruit to mature, in some cases before killing frost arrived.

This was also the case with dates planted at the Spanish Mission in San Diego. Fruit produced here was so superior that more northerly and westerly regions were never seriously considered dating large-scale commercial date production again Colley, Workers removed offshoots from the mother plant and camel caravans transported them to a railhead for further transport to a seaport or directly to the seaport. Offshoots were then packed in wet sawdust and placed in wooden crates so as to survive the long voyage to Los Angeles or San Francisco.

Yumaten industry, from Algeria, Egypt, and Arabia were planted in Phoenix, and one died. Six were females and three were males. Thirteen additional palms were sent to Yuma, but all were killed by a flood in There were also several private importation programs Simon, Bernard Johnson brought in offshoots dating Algeria in and offshoots in In15, offshoots were imported by West India Gardens.

Private individuals imported thousands more date palm offshoots through Local cultivars were also developed Hilgeman, Bythere were over acres of dates in Arizona, mostly in Phoenix. Arizona hectarage peaked in the s. California hectarage peaked at over acres during the s, and then acreage plateaued until recently. Bythe California date crop amounted to about MT Butterfield, Almost every grower built his own packing shed and developed his own sales program.

The commercial date industry in the united states and mexico

The most successful programs relied on direct sales to the consumer by mail order or local retail sales Wright, Marketers portrayed date fruit as exotic due to its place of origin. Images of camels, women in Arabic dress, and buildings of Arabian style were prominently included in date fruit advertisements. All are grown for the local, specialty and farmers market trade. Major date growing areas in the United States and Mexico. Areas within California are shown in green, within Arizona in blue, within Sonora in orange, and within Baja California in red.

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Citation: HortScience horts 51, 11; These trees are no longer commercially farmed. About ha of dates were growing in Arizona inchiefly in the Yuma area and the Hyder Valley.

Most date orchards in Coahuila and Baja California Sur are in traditional oases, and are not intensively farmed. Date production varies from 3.

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While dates grown in Sonora and Baja California are farmed commercially, most dates growing in Baja California Sur are found in the traditional oases, and are not farmed intensively de Grenade, Hence, production values are less in Baja California Sur. The fruit is firm, and the flavor is subtly sweet and nutty. Rain and humidity damage fruit quality, therefore the cultivar is more suited for areas that experience dry weather in late summer and fall, such as the Coachella Valley, rather than areas, such as Arizona, that are more ificantly affected by the late-summer Southwest monsoon.

This date comes from southeastern Morocco. During the 17th Century it was known dating a high-quality date and fruit sold at a higher price than other cultivars in the markets of England and Spain Swingle, An additional importation was made in In this case, Swingle imported six large and five Yuma offshoots from Boudnib, Morocco.

Bayoud disease Fusarium oxysporum was killing many of the trees in Morocco and it still isand so the palms were quarantined in a industry with no palms in it. Nevada was an obvious choice.

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USDA personnel found a Native American farmer in southern Nevada to care for the offshoots, but he had no title to his land, so the Indian reservation was enlarged to encompass his farm Thackery, There are six that remain. When commercially harvested and processed, they are moist and soft, but not so soft that they will be damaged while being packed. The cultivar also can produce more than lbs of fruit per palm when mature, and will produce many offshoots. Therefore, date palms production is found in hot, dry desert climates of the world.

Without sufficient heat, the palm is unable to mature the crop before winter. Also, too much humidity and rain during harvest le to fermentation and loss of fruit quality.

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In the Eastern Hemisphere, dates are mainly grown in the area ranging from western India and Pakistan on the east, across the Arabian Peninsula and throughout North Africa Zaid, The majority of palms grown in these regions are found in the oases, where the date palm is dating dominant tree. In the oasis, the palm provides shade and some of Yuma economic livelihood of villages and farms, including fruit as well as leaves and trunks for fencing, roofing, and support beams for buildings. Palm industry can also be made into baskets Potts, Other fruit trees, vegetables, and row crops grow underneath the dominant palm, and small canals distribute water to the fields where flood irrigation is practiced Tengberg, Palms outcross, so there are numerous local cultivars.

In the oasis, palm seeds are distributed haphazardly by birds and animals, and palm offshoots may not be removed from the mother plant, leading to groupings of plants.

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Newer plantings of date palms in these areas are often planted away from the oases, in a conventional manner, with fewer cultivars and consistent row and tree spacing. These new orchards are often established with pressurized irrigation systems. In the United States and Mexico, modern Yuma for date palm cultivation include planting, irrigation, fertilization, dethorning the fronds, pollination, thinning the fruit, ringing the bunches, bagging the bunches, and harvest Nixon and Carpenter, ; Paulsen, ; Tate and Hilgeman, Dates may be propagated by seed, offshoot, or via tissue culture.

Seeds are not a viable option because dating outcross easily and therefore the seedlings are not true to type Toumey, Many of the date palms produced worldwide are derived from tissue culture because there is a large demand for planting material, a shortage of offshoots, and the threat of disease if offshoots are used. The opposite is true industry the United States and in Mexico. Growers have collected offshoots from their trees for many years, and they are usually planted to increase the orchard size, sometimes sold, but seldom given away or destroyed.

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Offshoots are suitable for collection from the mother palms when they are about 1 to 1. They are removed in the late spring or early summer when warm soil temperatures promote root growth Aslan et al.

A team of workers remove offshoots from the mother plant using a chisel and a sledgehammer to cut the connection between the two. Offshoots are then planted directly into their new location in the orchard or are planted into nursery pots. Leaves of the newly cut offshoot are wrapped in burlap to reduce moisture loss, but these leaves will eventually die.

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Up to 9 months may pass before new leaf growth from the center of the palm indicates that the palm has survived the planting operation. Offshoots in pots remain there for 1 year before placement in the field. When removed from the mother palm, offshoots with roots are more likely to survive than those that have no roots.

Tissue culture plants have a very high survival rate because they have well-developed root systems upon planting. Trees are usually planted from 9 to 10 m apart in a square configuration.

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Male palms are propagated as offshoots or through tissue culture from other males, but all males originally came from seed propagation. Offshoots and tissue culture plants are anticipated to have harvestable yield after about 5 years. Date palm yield increases greatly from 1 year to the next for the next 8 to 10 years. Yield then increases slowly beginning at age 12 to 15 years.

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In general, date palms have been known to be productive up to years; however, yields diminish after 50 years Chao and Krueger, Despite their adaptability to the desert, date palms require ificant quantities of water.

Nixon and Carpenter recommended about 2. More recent calculations based on evapotranspiration suggest that date palms on heavier soils require about 2. In Arizona, California, and Mexico, there are established irrigation districts that control delivery of water from the Colorado River to the farms through canals. Within many districts, established palms are flood irrigated; however, there is increasing use of microsprinkler irrigation. Outside the districts, growers irrigate their date palms with well water drawn from aquifers.